• Your general impression on, and wishes to, PMIP Interglacials

    ⇒ What did you like about PMIP4 Interglacials, what did you dislike?

    ⇒ If there is something to improve, what is it? How would you improve PMIP interglacials?

    ⇒ Do you have proposals for specific simulations, e.g. freshwater hosing for particular time slices?

    ⇒ What kind of simulations and model output would you like to see being produced by PMIP Interglacials towards answering your scientific questions?

    ⇒ Are you willing to support us with your expertise?

  • What are the hot scientific questions that you would like to answer within PMIP interglacials?

    Below we have listed questions that we have in mind. What are your questions? Questions may be based on academic interest in paleoclimate, but anything tackling societal challenges is welcome as well, of course.

    How robust is ocean circulation (e.g. AMOC) across a variety of interglacials?

    How are internal modes of climate variability expressed across different interglacials?

    How strong were climate extremes across different interglacials?

    Can PMIP models successfully simulate ice loss on Greenland or Antarctica during warmer interglacials (if dynamic ice sheets are included in models)?

    ⇒ Are the prescribed CO2 and ice sheet changes sufficient to cause the recorded polar warming (if ice sheets are prescribed)?

    Why was MIS31 (1mya) so warm in Antarctica, to an extent that there were open water conditions in the Ross Sea?

  • What do you need from PMIP to be able to answer these questions?

    Towards defining a data request, that considers all data relevant for your research, we would like to know details about the model data that you would like to analyze based on PMIP Interglacials. Please think about:

    ⇒ Variables from climate model output, that you need for your analyses

        ⇒ classical prognostic climate model variables, like temperature or salinity

        ⇒ diagnostics like meridional overturning circulation stream function

        ⇒ output from advanced model components like stable water isotope codes

        ⇒ model realm (specific quantities, e.g. sea ice, may be present in various model components)

    ⇒ For each of these variables, please think about

        ⇒ spatial resolution and coordinate system for the data

            ⇒ native (irregular) grid of the model component vs.

            ⇒ data interpolated to a regular resolution

        ⇒ time resolution, e.g. for analysis of extremes (atmospheric blocking, (ocean) heat waves, ...)

  • If you run simulations, which models and components will you likely use for CMIP and PMIP?

    Please specify:


        ⇒ name and version

        ⇒ model resolution

        model components and their characteristics

            ⇒ interactive vegetation and/or prescribed vegetation

            ⇒ interactive ice sheets and/or prescribed ice sheets

            ⇒ stable water or carbon isotopes

    ⇒ relevant publications that document the model

  • In terms of boundary conditions, are you able to implement changes in:



    ice sheet configurations

    bathymetric changes

    (we assume all CMIP/PMIP modelling groups can implement GHG and orbital forcing)

  • If planning to run Interglacial WG simulations, what would be your order of priority?

    Please specify an ordered list of selected time periods (e.g. Last Interglacial, Holocene) and specify additional details like:

    ⇒ time-slice simulation

    ⇒ transient simulation

    ⇒ sensitivity-study

  • What additional simulations would you be interested in running?

    Please add simulations that have not been listed in the framework of our tentative proposal. Please provide motivation of your choice and highlight further details, including:

    ⇒ time-slice simulation

    ⇒ transient simulation

    ⇒ sensitivity-study

  • Would you be interested in running test simulations?

    If you are a modeller, would you be interested in running initial versions of proposed simulations with the newest version of your models?

    ⇒ Would you be willing to contribute this data towards a strategy paper, along the lines of Otto-Bliesner et al. (2017)? Such simulations could help to provide an initial outlook on model sensitivities that are then to be further explored in the PMIP.

  • Do you plan to CMORize your model output?

    ⇒ Does your model produce CMORized model output out-of-the-box?

    ⇒ How much effort is it for you to created CMORized output?

    Do you plan to contribute your output to the ESGF?

  • If you are planning to analyze simulations produced in the framework of PMIP, which simulations would be of most interest to you?

    Please specify your top list of time periods and consider:

    ⇒ time-slice simulations

    ⇒ transient simulations

    ⇒ sensitivity-studies

  • Can/will you contribute to defining the simulation protocol?

    Your expertise may include, among others:

    ⇒ boundary conditions

    ⇒ forcings

    ⇒ additional details (initialization, spinup, etc.)